This conference will highlight the accelerated changes imprint in our planet within this era of the Anthropocene. Transformation of forest use that is occurring in response to the pressures of globalization, population growth, resource scarcity and ecological degradation are part of the BIG challenges ahead. Biodiversity is essential to human well-being, but people have been reducing biodiversity throughout human history. Loss of species and degradation of ecosystems are likely to further accelerate in the coming years. Nonetheless, global goals to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss have mostly not been achieved. It is essential to take into account ecological, economic and functional values of the landscape to improve planning and decision-making. Operational solutions are needed to reconciling biodiversity conservation in the light of increasing demands of natural resources and land.